formerly occurred on all the main islands in the Hawaiian Archipelago (USA
) but it is now extinct on Lana'i and relict populations (probably fewer than 50 individuals [J. Lepson in litt.
2000]) remain on O`ahu and Moloka`i (Scott et al.
1986, P. Donaldson in litt.
1999). Recent population estimates are: c.385,000 individuals, excluding birds on O`ahu, during 1976-1983 (Scott et al.
and more than 350,000 individuals in the early 1990s following recent declines in several populations (Jacobi and Atikinson 1995)
. There is now evidence from monitoring (much of it unpublished) that the species has declined throughout the Hawaiian islands, except on windward Mau`i and at Hakalau, Hawai`i, where the populations appear to be stable (D. Pratt in litt.
. The numbers of individuals detected during monitoring have fallen at both mid and low elevations (D. Pratt in litt.
. The apparent decline appears to have been most pronounced in western Hawai`i, although there is little quantitative data for this area (D. Pratt in litt.
. Rights Holder
: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural ResourcesBibliographic Citation
: BirdLife International 2012. Vestiaria coccinea
. In: IUCN 2014 . IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1 . <www.iucnredlist.org