is endemic to Kaua`i in the Hawaiian Islands (USA
), where it occurred almost throughout the island in the 19th century but, by 1900, had become uncommon to rare in lowland forests (Lepson 1997)
. In 1968-1973, surveys estimated 24,230 birds, largely restricted to upper elevations (USFWS 1983)
. Surveys of the Alaka`i and Kôke`e areas in 2000 yielded an estimate of c.34,500 individuals in these areas (Foster et al.
. In 1992, Hurricane Iniki devastated forests throughout Kaua`i and all bird populations on the island appeared to have been drastically reduced (Pratt 1993, 1994)
. However, it would seem that this species has recovered and appears to be increasing (Pratt 1994, Foster et al.
. In 2003, the total population was put at 44,359 individuals (USFWS in litt
: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural ResourcesBibliographic Citation
: BirdLife International 2012. Hemignathus parvus
. In: IUCN 2014 . IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1 . <www.iucnredlist.org